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Osteochondroma | Has Tumor Cure?

Where Does Osteochondroma Occur?

Osteochondroma is a relatively common tumor. This lesion is more of a failure of normal bone development than a neoplasm (tumor). The lesion surfaces on the knee as a small nodule-cartilage island and grows as it worsens.

It is important to understand that unlike true tumors (neoplasms), osteochondroma manifests as a protruding bone. The growth of the protruding bone is directly linked to the patient’s growth spurt, which is why they are typically detected during adolescence. Know more about osteochondroma treatment at our clinic today.

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Where Does it Appear On the Bone?

In most cases, osteochondroma usually consists of a single lesion. Some patients may develop osteochondromatosis, aka multiple exostosis. Osteochondroma lesions can appear in any bone with cartilage, but it’s mostly found in the metaphyseal region, near the growth plate.

What Bones Develop Osteochondroma?

The most frequent site is the proximal tibia, the distal femur, and the proximal humerus. Often this condition is confused with wiki osteosarcoma.

Osteochondromas are rarely found in joints. If it is found there, then the patient has a syndromic pathology called Trevor’s disease (which is hemimelic epiphyseal dysplasia).

How Is It Diagnosed?

Many of these injuries do not cause symptoms, and the patient will discover only when he or she is imaging for another complaint.

Osteochondroma can cause functional symptoms due to the friction it can exert on adjacent structures; for example, an osteochondroma on the knee can cause pain due to friction in the iliotibial band, this exostosis can be resolved with a simple surgical resection procedure.

What Problems Can Osteochondroma Cause?

Exostosis can cause neurological symptoms like neuropathies due to the pressure that the injury exerts on the nervous system.

Patients also complain of stiffness in joints that can be caused by a tumor.

Osteochondroma may cause compression of arteries that leads to circulatory symptoms in the patient. It can be treated with a simple surgical resection procedure.

What Causes Multiple Osteochondromatosis?

Osteochondromatosis is an autosomal dominant condition with variable penetrance. The main genetic alteration that is found is an EXT1 gene that is located on chromosome 8q24.11-q24.13, or in the EXT2 gene that is on chromosome 11p11-12. This generates osteochondroma throughout the body.

What Are The Other Symptoms Of Multiple Exostosis?

Some patients may have a marked curvature of the radius and shortening of the ulna (bones in the forearm). Malignant degeneration is extremely rare; it occurs in about 1% of patients when we talk about solitary osteochondroma; in cases where we have multiple forms, the risk of malignancy goes to 5%.

Types Of Osteochondromas

There are two types of osteochondromas, sessile and pediculate. Pediculate is the most common. In general, the lesion has a cortical structure that continues with the bone and communicates with the spinal cord.

There is a lesion that originates from the same etiology that we call subungual exostosis that originates in the distal phalanx, usually the thumb, the removal of this lesion is indicated when there is local pain.

Osteochondroma Summary

Osteochondroma or exostosis is considered a type of benign tumor. This tumor has caused several debates, both in academia and among patients and doctors.

Characteristics Of Osteochondroma

Let’s shed some more light on the disease:

It is a bony protrusion, surrounded by a layer of cartilage. Osteochondroma is usually located at the ends of long bones. It is usually found in immature bones and causes deformities so they don’t develop as they should.

In the majority of cases, only a single lesion appears, but it can be found in multiple forms. It can be diagnosed easily with the correct tests.

Understanding Osteochondroma

Osteochondroma is a:

  • Bone growth disorder
  • Or a neoplasm, which is a pathological process that causes abnormal, uncontrolled, and progressive tissue growth through altered cell domination, known as tumors.

What Does Osteochondroma look like:

  • Pseudotumoral lesion (they are “spots” on the bones that can be identified by imaging exams, they look like tumors but aren’t). They are the most common benign bone tumor
  • It is an exostosis; a bone growth that protrudes from the surface of a bone

The Official Definition of Osteochondroma

World Health Organization (WHO): “Osteochondromas are bone projections, surrounded by a cartilaginous layer, which rise on the outer surface of the bone.”

Epidemiology

Osteochondroma

● 10% of all bone tumors;
● Osteochondroma is usually found in children in about 85% of cases
● They usually occur in:
○ the upper and lower limbs;
○ long bones;
○ the knee, 40% of its cases;
○ the femur and humerus;
○ the scapula and hip, in some cases.

Around 0.002% of the world population has osteochondroma.

Osteochondroma mostly affects males. However, most experts do not believe that sex is a determining factor.

If you notice any of the symptoms mentioned above, please contact your doctor.

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